Jupiter is easily identifiable from the band-like structures that extend across its surface. These belts are areas of different rotation and quite different properties. But what’s going on underneath them? The Hubble telescope or probes such as Juno primarily show just the exterior layer. To understand the dynamic behavior of Jupiter’s atmosphere, scientists need to look into its depths – something the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) makes possible in the radio frequency range.
The Milky Way has existed for at least 13 billion years. Since then, it has continued to produce more and more new stars; one generation gives way to the next. To do this, it needs gas – more than it contains itself. That applies to all other galaxies too. But where do the Milky Way, Andromeda, and their like find more gas? In the intergalactic medium, which, at first glance, looks like just empty space between the galaxies.